Galvanometer (Galvo) Technology

The galvo is a set of two motor driven mirrors that steers the laser beam through a lens.  The lens will determine the process field.  The lens can be "F-Theta" or not.  The F-Theta lens attempts to keep the beam perpendicular to the marking surface no matter the size of the lens and ultimately the process field.  The lens will determine the process field size.  

Non "F-Theta" lenses are used from vendors to save cost.  Be aware of field and result differences as the laser beam is a pendulum and therefore focus becomes an issue at the field extents and the beam becomes egg shape instead of circular. 


Laser by itself.  The galvo is the black box at the end.


Typically a laser will be connected to a power supply


Laser with the cover removed - one galvo mirror is blue


Laser beam bouncing off both galvo mirrors


Galvo close up.  Laser beam shoots through a lens


The lens determines the process field and focus distance


Workstation example of an open system (Class 1V).  Operator must wear saftey goggles 


Workstation example an a laser over a conveyor.  Usually an eye safe enclosure is built around the mark area


Workstation example of a complete turn-key eye-safe laser workstation.  Laser is mounted inside. 


Example shows the laser mounted on a Z post inside the eye-safe enclsoure